Four laws of ecology

One of Barry Commoner’s lasting legacies is these four laws, written in The Closing Circle in 1971:
1.  Everything is connected to everything else. There is one ecosphere for all living organisms and what affects one, affects all.
2.  Everything must go somewhere. There is no “waste” in nature and there is no “away” to which things can be thrown.
3.  Nature knows best. Humankind has fashioned technology to improve upon nature, but such change in a natural system is, says Commoner, “likely to be detrimental to that system”
4.  There is no such thing as a free lunch. Exploitation of nature will inevitably involve the conversion of resources from useful to useless forms.